Today, I started writing my new book, the working title of which is Xenoarchaeology: The Final Frontier. It examines the science, theory, and current work in interplanetary archaeological research and the search of extraterrestrial intelligence.
I will discuss legitimate (but often hidden) plans that academicians, corporations, and government and military contractors are doing to develop and implement such programs, as well as its implications.
Of course, there will be much more info to come on this project, but I literally wrote the first words of the first page and just couldn't wait to tell you!!!
The official STAR site will launch July 4th. The URL will be www.archaeologytruth.org. I will be sending out an email later this week that will show a sneak peek of the site to those on the STAR membership list. There is still time to become a founding member of STAR at no minimum. All donors, no matter how small, become Founding Members of STAR and will have lifetime access to all materials at no additional cost, as well as a special ‘Thank You Gift’ from me.
I am also happy to announce that STAR is planning a full scale investigation into a number of archaeological anomalies and cover-ups, the first being The Search for Tartaria. Why Tartaria? The Tartaria question demonstrates what happens when institutional deception and the breakdown of societal trust meet. The results: confusion, deception, and the corruption of epistemology.
Questions we seek to uncover are: Is Tartaria real? Has it really been lost, or even hidden from the history books? If so, why? Who would hide the history of one of the most magnificent cultures the world has ever known? Is this all a sophisticated Psyop? Moreover, what is the relationship between Tartaria and Sumer? Are there Sumerian tablets that mention Tartaria? How is Tartaria connected to the ancient Celts?
After receiving numerous emails and calls requesting that I look into Tartaria, I began investigating and I believe I have found the answers to these questions and others. STAR members will be able to actively participate in this investigation through meetings, collaboration groups, and more. In addition to the STAR investigation, I am planning an expedition to the region to see and film first-hand evidence of Tartaria. More to come on this exciting adventure, so consider becoming a member of STAR to stay on top of developments.
Good evening! You may have noticed I've been silent lately. I've been a bit under the weather. I spoke too soon about my dental recovery. After a total of 11 re-fillings and two extractions, I came down with a painful condition called dry socket, followed by an infection in my jaw, both top and bottom. The first antibiotic they gave me did not work. Now, I am on a stronger one. Once it (hopefully) clears up, I will need a root canal. The fun never ends! A side note: In case you are wondering why my teeth are so wretched, I can assure you it has less to do with my British ancestry 😉 and more to do with having poor nutrition when I was young and my mother never taking me to the dentist as a child. 😔 Clearly, I was not born into any sort of privilege, but we've all had our crosses to bear, haven't we? As C. S. Lewis said, "You can't go back and change the beginning, but you can start where you are and change the ending." 🙂
That said, I have been having a hard time keeping up on top of things. At the moment, I am taking it easy and just plugging away on the STAR website until this new antibiotic kicks in and I start to feel better.
I'll say, I'd probably get a lot more done if I had a prescription for these Victorian cocaine tooth drops, as they were an "instantaneous cure." 😂
I am deeply saddened to report that nuclear physicist, UFO researcher, and friend to many of us, Stanton Friedman, passed away last evening. His professionalism, kindness, and dedication to finding the truth is a rarity these days. There will never be another Stanton T. Friedman. R.I.P., friend. May you finally know the answers. 🖤
Just a quick update. A new page has been added to my site that includes recent and featured interviews, as well as a calendar of upcoming shows and appearances. Rather than using my blog to post every time I am on a show, I thought adding a new page would help point people to the content they are looking for while clearing out space on my blog for deeper reflection. Not every date is in the calendar yet. Dates and info on book signings, interviews, speaking events, and more will be added soon, so check back periodically or subscribe. Check it out!
I'll be joining Willy Miranda on the Paradigm Matrix tonight at 6:00 pm Pacific 9:00 pm Eastern on www.kcorradio.com. We'll be talking Evil Archaeology and all things hidden history. Looking forward to it!
Have you ordered Evil Archaeology yet? If you order the Kindle book now (or if you already have) you can read it before it is officially released! Evil Archaeology will be delivered to your Kindle tomorrow, so be sure to secure your Kindle edition today so you can start reading and find out why everyone is talking about this terrifyingly true book. #evilarchaeology
I was honored to be interviewed for the latest issue of Shadows of Your Mind Magazine. This is by far one of the best magazines on alternative research available, so I was very happy to be featured. This in depth multi-page interview really did a good job sharing my background, work, and views on alternative archaeology.
Click through the publication and be sure to subscribe to Shadows of Your Mind Magazine. It's completely free!
Check out their website too: https://shadowsmagazine.co.uk/
A few years ago, my organization the Society for Truth in Archaeological Research (STAR) was the victim of theft and censorship. Past efforts to organize systems within which I could disseminate research and band together with others were thwarted by specific members of my own alternative research community. Sadly, I learned the hard way after first publishing my best-selling report, The Sumerian Controversy, that some of the authors, researchers, television personalities, radio show hosts, and others, are actually engaged in a disinformation campaign against the public. Those at the top of this disinformation campaign are motivated by ideology, while those at the bottom, are motivated by money. Together, this system has been working to shut out authentic research and promote a hidden agenda cloaked as “edutainment.” Some of these folks are also involved in the activities they often accuse the elites of (human trafficking, ritualistic abuse, Nazism, etc.).
Do I know who “they” are? Yes. I have names. I have documents and screen caps of their messages to me. So, this is not based on hunches, this is based on my own experiences, testimony, and evidence. Some of these names might surprise you; some, maybe not. The point is, I have sat on this information for some time and instead of spreading negativity, I’ve tried focus on my research and shine a light on truth. However, if I cannot be free to release my research, my light can no longer shine.
In addition to their take down efforts, YouTube informed me that my videos are “no longer eligible for monetization.” That means, my ability to ever raise money with my video content has been blocked. As you know, Amazon has also made it virtually impossible for me to distribute my earlier books. Hurdles like these have made it difficult for me to release any information, let alone sensitive material. As result, I have been sitting on a number of exposé reports that are earth-shattering to the mainstream narrative. I have over five years of serious research and findings that name names and give detailed evidence of my claims from not only scholarly and historical research, but also from time spent investigating in Washington DC and beyond, as well as my experience infiltrating a number of secret groups. Most of these experiences and findings have been kept secret because it is too much for a book and too risky to just throw out into the wrong hands. So, I have essentially allowed myself to be censored to some degree.
This censorship ends now! This is why, today, I am happy to announce the rebirth of the Society for Truth in Archaeological Research-AKA STAR!
What does this mean? I am working now on the technological infrastructure to launch STAR as a closed platform where I can be free to publish my most shocking and important research, videos, webinars, and reports, directly to you. To make this possible, I will have to charge a small membership due. I apologize and hope you will understand, but if I make all of this free and public, it will be shut down, stolen, and used against me, as it has been for a few years now.
This will not be some alternative platform like a Facebook rip-off or anything like that. The new STAR will have a portal on my site. You will log in and then have access to everything (and I mean everything!). In addition to research and reports, I will also have videos, documentaries, and live video chats with me, both in group chats and 1-on-1 (That's right! Just you and me :) ). This way, we can all get together in real time and talk about the latest discoveries. Together, we can do so much more than I can do alone.
Therefore, I need your initial support getting STAR off the ground. I will need servers and audio/visual equipment so that I can produce good quality documentaries and presentations. Please help me spread my research, release my most hard-hitting information, and cultivate a community of empowered truthseekers! Any amount, no matter how small, will go far to help build this community. If you cannot contribute at the moment, you can still help by sharing this link:
Thank you in advance!
STAR is a member supported international organization of independent researchers and professionals interested in history from a daring and more inclusive perspective.
Members are people with a passion for exploring and a love of learning. We are open-minded and believe that all theories are worth consideration, as science must be based on empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.
We strive to present all sides of a subject in the name of scientific inquiry and do not discriminate against theories typically labeled as “fringe” or “pseudo.” We feel that such terms are pejorative, divisive, and counterproductive to the true scientific method.
This is why we have open membership, regardless of credentials. There are many non-university credentialed or affiliated individuals who have devoted countless hours of their lives to researching alternative theories. These researchers carry a wealth of knowledge that deserves to be valued, supported, and shared.
STAR's aim is to help empower independent researchers through support, community, resources, and education so that the truth about human history can be uncovered and shared.
According to George Orwell, “Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.” Let’s take back control of our history now, so that we can decide our own futures!
This is just a quick little update to let you know that I am alive and well. I've just been very busy lately preparing for the release of my new book, Evil Archaeology, which will be available April 1st. I have also been working on a few other writing projects, research, event planning, a book tour, and more.
Things are really picking up in the world of alternative research, as more people are willing to consider alternative explanations to the worlds greatest mysteries. This year is going to be amazing! Thank you for hanging in there with me while I work to bring you more quality content this 2019.
It’s a familiar trope: A priest holds a crucifix in front of a possessed person, a vampire recoils at the sight of garlic, but can objects that are considered good truly protect us from evil entities? People have used inanimate objects as protection since antiquity. Amulets and talismans are widely known, but what about witch bottles and smoked cats? I discuss these two horrific archaeological discoveries in my upcoming book, Evil Archaeology, available April 1st. Below is an excerpt from the book on witch bottles and smoked cats, just in time for Halloween.
Witch Bottles and Smoked Cats
One horrific find that archaeologist uncover more often than you might expect is the witch bottle. The practice of making witch bottles and burying them as a charm to ward off evil originated in England in the late Middle Ages but continued well into the twentieth century both in England and the United States (Manning, 2014). There were many different reasons people used witch bottles, but the one most often cited is bewitchment. These bottles were not like the ones used to trap jinn; that would not be horrific. Instead, these bottles contained urine and other bodily fluids mixed with insects, pins, and sharp objects that were meant to magically injure the witch and make it too painful for her to urinate. It was an oddly specific way to punish a witch.
In addition to punishing the witch, by burying a witch bottle at you home, you could prevent an evil witch attack or curse. In 2014, archaeologist unearthed a beautifully preserved glass witch bottle in Newark-on-Trent in the United Kingdom. The six-inch-tall green bottle was buried at a building complex known as the Old Magnus Buildings to protect the area from evil spirits and witches. The bottle dated to around 1680 CE. Historical evidence suggests most witch bottles used a similar recipe, but in England, some witch bottles were a little different. Some of the materials found in English witch bottles include leather hearts pierced with needles, human hair, fingernail clippings, sulfur, tallow, bone, pages from books, and written spells. Sometimes, English witch bottles are found with unidentified liquids that have remained unidentified because they have not undergone a chemical analysis. Witch bottles can be found in old homes and buildings behind walls, around chimneys, and under floorboards. If you have a very old home, you could have one buried somewhere, especially if you live in New England. Lucky you!
Possibly for similar reasons, cats described as “smoked” have been found buried around homes. The gruesome and sad practice is thought to be even older than burying witch bottles. The amount of these smoked cats found in standing stone structures in the British Isles and north-central Europe “suggest[s] a possible Anglo-Saxon or Norse origin for the custom” (ibid.). In Germany, archaeologists have recorded almost one hundred of these poor kitties. There were even seventeen found in Australia, with many more expected worldwide.
Although there was skepticism about whether these cats were intentionally mummified and entombed in buildings, archaeologists more often find that the cats in these burials are pinned or tied in various poses, along with rodents or birds positioned as if they were in the “midst of an attack or chase, or positioned with their prey in their mouths” (Sheehan, 1990). There is some disagreement as to whether these cats were buried alive, but it seems more likely that they were buried after death.
Unlike witch bottles, research into the ritual concealment of cats in buildings is often overlooked, even though there have been identified nearly forty cases of dried cats in US buildings in the Mid-Atlantic region. Workers renovating the Ohio Statehouse found a shoebox dating to the nineteenth century that contained the skeletal remains of a cat behind the plaster wall in the cupola at the top of the rotunda. The difficulty reaching the location indicates it was clearly a deliberate act (Manning, 2014). One theory to explain the rationale behind this practice is that it was a way to ward off vermin, as a sort of sympathetic magic. This theory makes some sense considering the fact that numerous cats were posed in aggressive postures, often with prey. However, some archaeologists argue this may have been a ritual sacrifice to the building in exchange for structural safety.
To read more on the more on the history of witches, evil, and gruesome archaeological discoveries, be sure to check out Evil Archaeology. It is available for pre-order at Amazon and Barnes & Noble and will be available everywhere on April 1st.
Manning, M. Chris. “The Material Culture of Ritual Concealments in the United States.” Historical Archaeology 48, no. 3 (2014): 52–83. doi:10.1007/bf03376937.
Sheehan, John. “A Seventeenth Century Dried Cat from Ennis Friary.” North Munster Antiquarian Journal 32 (1990): 64–69
Happy Saturday, everyone!
I’ve been a little quiet lately, so I just wanted to give a quick update. In addition to writing, researching, and finishing up a few other big projects that I will unveil before the year is up, I have had some strange health issues.
After numerous and visits to some of the best specialists in the world (to which I am grateful to have access), I have found that I have a number of severe food allergies and intolerances, as well as multiple autoimmune disorders. Basically, my immune system is in hyperdrive, so much so that it can attack itself. I have a treatment plan to put me into remission, part of which requires me to be drastically limited in what I can eat. I can no longer have wheat, oats, corn, gluten, soy, nuts, eggs, legumes, dairy, fish, shellfish, nightshades, fungi, yeast, sesame, cassava, a variety of specific proteins, and bananas. Yes. Bananas. Basically, I try to focus on what I can eat since that list is easier to swallow (pun intended). I will spare you all of the technical aspects of all of this but let me just note one thing:
Many people argue over the safety of GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms). I have always been a "health nut" and have generally tried to avoid GMOs. However, I was not well-versed on the science behind them and not quite positive that they were particularly unsafe. I was on the fence about the science since throughout history man has genetically modified food through practices like plant grafting. I really didn’t give it a lot of thought, otherwise and of course growing up, things like GMO or organic were not in my family's lexicon. As a child of single mother in the 80s/90s, I grew up eating my fair share of Hot Pockets, Lunchables, and soda. That's probably why I became so health conscious as an adult.
In my freshman year in college, I had a biology class called Ecology, Environment, and Evolution. The professor was a real polemicist when it came to the topic of GMOs. He would pick fights with me for fun because he somehow assumed I was anti-GMO (probably because I was vegan). He also liked to put me down for majoring in what he loved to remind me was a “soft science,” like anthropology, as opposed to a hard science like biology. He used to drone on and on about how safe GMOs were and how anyone worried about them were “complete morons.”
Fast forward nearly 15 years, and here I am, a soft scientist, sitting in the Cleveland Clinic as multiple specialist “hard scientists” are explaining to me that they believe my condition and its growing prevalence in Western society is due to GMOs. So there you have it. Just something to consider.
Rest assured that while my diet may be limited, my passion and energy for uncovering the truth behind ancient mysteries is not. Nothing changes on that front. Well, except for maybe white chocolate while writing. One of my favorite indulgences is white chocolate, especially if I am up late researching or writing. So, if anyone knows of a white chocolate out there that is vegan, GMO, and soy-free, with nothing artificial, please let me know!
I am very excited to learn about this study, as it directly pertains to new research I am working on with regards to my interplanetary search for lost civilizations. The new research program I am currently developing, known as The Final Frontier, will attempt to study ancient exoarchaeological sites to find evidence of ancient civilization. If you are interested in learning more about The Final Frontier, please sign up to receive updates.
With that said, this new study shows out of Brown university shows evidence that ancient Mars may have had enough chemical energy for microbes to thrive underground and likely had a global subsurface habitable zone several kilometers in thickness. According to researchers, the subsurface of ancient Mars would have had enough hydrogen production via radiolysis to power a global subsurface biosphere, making it possible for habitable zones that would have been similar to those on Earth.
While there has been evidence of past water activity on Mars, scientists have not been clear on how long water may have flowed on Mars. So, to determine how long water may have flowed on Mars, researchers used a gamma ray spectrometer from NASA’s Mars Odyssey spacecraft to map large quantities of the radioactive elements thorium and potassium in the Martian crust. This find led them to believe that uranium was also there. Thus, the decay of those three elements provides the radiation that drives the radiolytic breakdown of water. Since these elements decay at constant rates, the researchers could use the modern abundances to calculate how long water flowed, sort of like radio carbon dating. The evidence suggested that there would have been plenty of groundwater in these habitable zones which would have persisted for hundreds of millions of years.
While the researchers are careful to point out that their findings do not necessarily mean that life existed on ancient Mars, but rather that if life did indeed get started, then the composition of the Martian subsurface could have supported life for hundreds of millions of years. The work also has implications for future Mars exploration, suggesting that areas where the ancient subsurface is exposed might be good places to look for evidence of past life, which is precisely why they are researching this.
According to Jack Mustard, a professor in Brown’s Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences and coauthor of the study, the mission of NASA’s Mars 2020 rover is to look for the signs of past life. The top two sites NASA is considering: Northeast Syrtis Major and Midway.
What do you think they'll find? Perhaps more importantly, do you think they will tell us the whole story?
Brown University. (2018, September 24). Ancient Mars had right conditions for underground life, new research suggests. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 24, 2018 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180924102040.htm
Hi everyone! I had the honor of writing the foreword to this amazing book by my friend and colleague, Barbara Jean Lindsey, about the Egyptian Goddess, Sekhmet.
Today, people from all walks of life are inspired by Sekhmet. Teachers, health practitioners, stay-at-home parents, writers, musicians, artists; her felinus spirit resonates with an astonishingly broad range of contemporary people. How has this complicated Egyptian goddess touched so many lives today? In this book, author Barbara Jean Lindsey brings together an impressive cross-section of people whose lives have been touched by the spirit of Sekhmet. These first-hand experiences combine with spiritually inspired art to bring a new appreciation for what could only be described as an “Egyptian Goddess Revolution.”
Now available on Amazon!
It is with great shock, sadness, and anger, that I must report one of the single greatest historical losses the world has ever seen. Sunday, September 2nd, 2018, at around 7:30 p.m., local time, the 200-year-old National Museum of Brazil went up in flames, taking with it at least 20 million artifacts spanning 11,000 years of not only Brazilian history, but also Egyptian, Greco-Roman, Paleontological, Geological, Biological… Everything!
Before I go on to explain, please keep in mind that this tragedy is much more massive in terms of loss of artifacts than even the burning of the Library of Alexandria. Ancient accounts estimate the number of scrolls lost in the burning of the Library of Alexandria is around 40,000. Modern scholars, such as Luciano Canfora (1990), professor at the University of Bari (Italy), have argued that the number may be much smaller, considering that some individual literary works were comprised of multiple scrolls. One of the highest estimates of the losses at Alexandria is from Aulus Gellius, in approximately 169 CE, who claimed that 700,000 scrolls were burned during the sack of Alexandria (Canfora, 1990); still nowhere close to 20 million! So what happened? How and why did this literal palace of cultural treasure burn? Brace yourself for the details, which are so shocking, they leave us wondering if this was a case of criminal negligence or criminal intent.
First, the background. The museum, located in Rio de Janeiro, is celebrating its 200th year. Founded in 1818 by King Dom João VI, it is also a research center that was incorporated into the University of Brazil (now UFRJ) in 1946. According to the National Museum of Brazil’s website, the collection had more than 20 million items covering many areas of science such as Archaeology, Ethnology, Geology, Paleontology, Zoology, and Biological Anthropology.
The fire was eventually controlled late in the morning of the following Monday, but small flares continued to burn parts of the institution's facility, causing the ashes of burned documents to fall in several neighborhoods of the city. According to the press office of the museum and the fire department, there were no injuries. Researchers and officials from the National Museum met with fire officials to try to assist in trying to save the museum. The goal was to prevent the fire from reaching a part of the museum containing flammable chemicals used in the preservation of rare animal specimens.
The causes of the tragedy are still unknown. The Brazilian Federal Police will investigate, but Minister of Culture, Sérgio Sá Leitão, theorized that the fire could have been the result of a short circuit. The Civil Police has opened an investigation and will pass on the case to the Federal Police's Office of Repression of Environmental Crimes and Historical Patrimony, which will determine if the fire was criminal or not.
Much of the building's structure was made of wood, and the collection had a lot of flammable material, which made the fire spread quickly. However, other factors were at play here. For example, only four guards were on site. Also, the museum's smoke detectors were not working. Firefighters arrived at the site soon after the fire started, but according to them, the two fire hydrants near the National Museum did not have enough pressure, even though according to the University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) rector, Roberto Lehrer, there was a reserve of water in the museum. The fire commander-in-chief, Colonel Roberto Robadey Costa Junior, said that the lack of water delayed their ability to fight the fire by a half hour, leaving firefighters with little choice but to collect water from a nearby pond in a futile effort to extinguish the blaze. Today’s dawn rainfall helped to extinguish further outbreaks.
Officials say that 90% of the entire collection is gone. Treasures from the collection of the National Museum include the skull of Luzia, the oldest human fossil found in the Americas; the largest Egyptian collection in Latin America, containing mummies and rare Egyptian objects purchased by Dom Pedro I and Dom Pedro II; also Incan artifacts and Andean mummies; a large collection of Greco-Roman art and artifacts of Empress Teresa Cristina; the collections of Paleontology that include the 80 million year old fossil of the dinosaur, Maxakalisaurus topai. The 5-ton meteorite, Bendegó, the largest ever found in Brazil, is the only item left untouched after the fire. Below are the pictures of the museum after the fire.
There are countless important artifacts and documents lost forever. While it is hard to imagine entire museum exhibits burning to the ground, it is perhaps harder to imagine what other items could have been lost. What about the artifacts stored away from public viewing? The museum, as an independent part of the university, was a research institution. Countless artifacts that were not in the public view are also gone. Were they burned too? Or was this the most sophisticated art heist of all time? The details are still unfolding.
Clearly, I am not the only one with major questions here. Hundreds of protesters took to the streets once the word got out. They blamed the government and Brazilian President, Michel Temer, for not investing enough to help secure the museum in the years leading up to the fire. Instead, the government chose to take millions of taxpayer dollars to pay for the 2016 Rio Olympic Games and 2014 World Cup. This left public institutions, like the museum, broke. At one point, the museum could no longer pay its staff.
What really happened to this museum? I will stay on this story and investigate. I will be sure to bring you updates on everything I find out.
Canfora, L. (1991). The vanished library: A wonder of the ancient world. London: Vintage.
Museu Nacional. (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2018, from http://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/
In a paper just published in the Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, entitled, “The Strongest Magnetic Fields on the Coolest Brown Dwarfs,” by Kao et al., the National Radio Astronomy Observatory has made the first radio-telescope detection of a planetary-mass object beyond our solar system.
Its colossal magnetic power has astronomers calling it a “rogue” object, that is mysteriously traveling through space unaccompanied by any parent star. The phantom object is being called a “failed star,” as it is something between a planet and a brown dwarf. Scientists discovered that the object was part of a very young group of stars, which means that it could be a free-floating planet. They argued that it was not a brown dwarf because it was not big enough. Brown dwarfs are too big to be classified as planets, yet not big enough to sustain nuclear fusion of hydrogen in their cores, which is the process that powers stars. The object is 12.7 times the mass of Jupiter, but with a magnetic field 200 times more powerful than Jupiter's, and is 20 light-years from Earth. The strange object has a surface temperature of about 825 degrees Celsius, or more than 1500 degrees Fahrenheit. Scientists have named the elusive rogue body, SIMP J01365663+0933473.
So what does this mean? Could this be Nibiru, as some have suggested? Subsequent observations have shown that there is evidence of a “variable structure in the frequency-dependent time series” of their targets on timescales “shorter than a rotation period, suggesting a higher degree of variability in the current systems near the surfaces of brown dwarfs” (Kao et al., 2018). The scientists conclude that the age, mass, and temperature of the mysterious rogue planet-like object cannot account for the strong magnetic fields produced by their targets. More research is clearly needed, thus, it remains a mystery. I will post updates as they are received.
Do I think this is Nibiru? I think it is an interesting discovery, for sure. It really makes it clear how little we know about the nature of the cosmos. That's the real story here, in my opinion. Everyday, a tiny bit of new information seeps through the filter of academia, challenging us to question the accepted narrative, sometimes, even calling for us to rewrite text books.
As to whether this strange celestial body is "the one" that may bring about a cataclysm or otherwise, I tend to doubt it based on my belief that if and when they do spot something to worry about, we the people would be the last to know, if ever at all.
Still, it is important to watch these developments closely because disclosure is a process, not a result.
Kao, M. M., Hallinan, G., Pineda, J. S., Stevenson, D., & Burgasser, A. (2018). The Strongest Magnetic Fields on the Coolest Brown Dwarfs. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 237(2), 25. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aac2d5
Archaeologists believe they have found evidence of ancient cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology. At the annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology in Washington, D.C., archaeologists discussed how ancient stone money transactions on the island of Yap, in the western Pacific Ocean, may have been the precursor to Bitcoin and blockchain technologies. Researchers drew astonishing parallels between the carved limestone disks of the Yap people and modern cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. But how did this ancient stone money system work like cryptocurrency?
Yap islanders pioneered a public oral system for securely tracking and exchanging their currency, the giant limestone coins, called rai. Archaeologists point out that a similar process happens with blockchain through the storing of digital histories. There are many other similarities, though, including the mining, storage, peer-to-peer negotiation, and auditability of both currencies. Once again, history has shown that the ancients were wiser than people often realize.
What are these ancient coins, and how were they used?
How long the Yap people have used stone currency remains a mystery, but flat rocks have been found at the site dating back over 2000 years. What archaeologists do know, is that centuries ago, Yapese stone carvers started traveling to the Palauan archipelago to carve limestone into circular rai currency. The stone disks had a hole cut into the center, so men could skewer them with wooden poles for transport on their rafts. Back at the island, the miners would present the huge coins to the villagers at a public gathering where they would describe each coin’s manufacturing history and attributes of the stones to the community so that everyone knew a rai’s worth. After public inspection, a coin was assigned a value based on its attributes like size, shape, quality, and even the risks taken on the journey to acquire it. Once the rai’s worth was determined, the village chief would display the coin at communal spots. Researchers argue that similarly, Bitcoin miners solve complex mathematical problems in order to release units of the cryptocurrency to the community. Then, blockchain technology verifies the transaction, making it visible to the network.
The similarities do not end there. Through the display of rai in public places in the village, the Yap people could see and agree on the value of the currency, like how Bitcoin participants can check the value of their currency through a viewable digital ledger. Further, for the Yap people to have mined for limestone, they had to work out agreements with nearby islanders. Likewise, miners of Bitcoin receive a digital request to mine for coins. After a rai coin was verified and publicly displayed, it could be exchanged for goods and services, just like Bitcoins. Also, like Bitcoin, the transaction history for each rai was publicly visible to yap blockchain members.
New research is emerging every day to suggest that ancient stone money, like the rai, is only one of many examples of how ancient civilizations created a socially networked economic system based on community and transparency. Clearly, we still have a lot to learn from our ancient history. Exciting new technologies like cryptocurrencies and blockchains are yet another example of how ancient wisdom may hold the key to humanity’s future. As Machiavelli said, "Whoever wishes to foresee the future must consult the past; for human events ever resemble those of preceding times."
Time to rewrite the history books again! In Jordan, at a site called Shubayqa 1, archaeologists from the University of Copenhagen, University College London and University of Cambridge, have found traces of what may be the oldest bread in the world. In fact, the bread residues found are older than agriculture. In a discovery that could rewrite human history, archaeologists found 24 charred remains of flat loaves of bread dating to as far back as 14,400 years! Discoveries of the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the Eastern Mediterranean, like flint sickle blades and ground stone tools, have led researchers to believe they may exploited plants in a number of ways. This new discovery, however, means that man made bread four thousand years earlier than the oldest known remains of agriculture.
The research, published in the scientific journalism Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, showed that the pieces of bread were baked from early ancestors of cereals that were later domesticated. Analysis of the remains found that wild grains were ground into flour, after which dough was made. The result was a type of bread that was also found at other Neolithic and Roman sites in Europe and Turkey. The archaeologists are curious here whether the use of the wild cereals has had an influence on the later cultivation of crops, but whether this actually was the case, has yet to appear from follow-up research.
Did bread contribute to the development of agriculture?
The fact that the bread was baked before farming took place indicates that the bread had a special status. Making bread is in fact a laborious process, grain has to be harvested, the grains have to be peeled and ground, the dough has to be kneaded and then the bread has to be baked. Perhaps the desire to make more of this special food has contributed to the development of agriculture.
In the follow-up studies into the development of agriculture, research will continue to focus on the Natufian culture. The Natufian culture lived between about 12,000 BC. and 9,000 BCE, in the area of what is now Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and parts of Syria. It is known as a culture that played an important role in the transition from nomadic cultures to cultures with a permanent residence. For example, Natufian culture was a hunter-gatherer culture, but they did have permanent settlements. The place in which the bread was found is such a permanent settlement.